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What is a flood?

A flood is the inundation of a dry area within a short period of time. For the most part, flooding is caused by rain and sometimes by storms, earthquakes and rivers overflowing their banks.
The enormous power of floodwaters and the suddenness with which they come upon us present a real danger, even to the extent of loss of life (by drowning, after being caught in a surge of flood water that seems at first to be harmless), of humans and other living creatures. More than once, rescue services around the world have been called on to help trapped people by means of rubber rafts and other special means.
Roads and buildings can also suffer severe damage when hit by flood. Many roads have to be repaired each year, following the flood season.
It is very important to conduct research into flooding, especially the vadis and riverbeds in the Judean Desert and the Negev.
In Israel, it is particularly the vadis and riverbeds in the Judean Desert and the Negev that are flooded.

A unique combination of climatic and geographical situations create conditions suited to flooding: heavy, continuous rainfall, impermeable ground, a large river collecting basin and a steeping sloping ground surface that lead the waters to the basin.
As stated above, if a lot of rain falls and the ground can't absorb it, the rainwater flows on the surface. Drops of water collect into small streams that in turn become larger streams and then rivers. At its source, close to the watershed, a flood will appear to be a stream that came out of nowhere. As it flows downhill the flood creates larger rivers and waterfalls.
The power of the flood depends on the amount of water involved and the size of the drainage basin. The larger the basin, the greater the number of streams that run into it and the stronger the flow. As stated above, it is possible to have a flood caused by natural catastrophe that has the power to create similar conditions.

Floods, like earthquakes and fire, strike the home front without advance warning. The main problem in trying to forecast floods resulting from the concentration of rainfall is the consequence of the fact that there is no direct connection between the area in which the rain falls and the place where the flooding takes place.
If enough rain falls in the Sinai Desert, the Paron River in southern Israel will overflow its banks and flood the Arava road. So, for example, local rain and impermeable ground cause the collection of water into small streams that belong to the Paron River drainage basin, that originate in Egypt, gathering force and power as they flow on. The steeper the slope, the greater the flooding that suddenly reaches the Arava – which is seemingly dry and cloud-free.
Cooperation between the meteorological forecast centers together with close monitoring of the drainage basins helps in the forecast of floods and reduction of the damage that may be caused as a result of flooding. Similarly, in order to prevent disastrous consequences, it is vital that the general population be alert to the situation – listening to the communications media for instructions, and following them.